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Types of maps and their uses. Interpretation of topographic maps. The national grid system. Orientation to the ground. Understanding relief (contours) Protection and modification of maps.

The compass. Bearings. Correcting for declination. Following a desired bearing. The compass as a protractor. Cautions with the compass. Setting the map with the compass.

Find one's position with the compass. Staying on course in close terrain or poor visibility. Pacing. Pacing corrections for steep ground. Use of an altimeter.

Use of a GPS. Survival navigation, including use of the sun and astral navigation.



Russ Meades grew up in rural England and spent all of his spare time exploring and learning about the countryside.

He acquired many skills in improvisation from local characters that would later serve him well in the military.

Formal exposure to the concepts of survival was gained while training with the British Army in the early 1980s.

He took a keen interest in the subject and began teaching basic survival to British Army troops in 1987.

Following immigration to Canada and transfer to the Canadian Army in the early 1990s, Russ maintained and developed his survival skills which were useful on his many solo hunting and hiking trips as well as in his military activities.

In 2007, Russ transferred to the Canadian Rangers as their Operations and Training Officer and was able to gain further knowledge from many very experienced Rangers.

In 2017 Russ led the design team that produced the Canadian Rangers’ advanced survival course. In 2019, Russ was honoured by the great Mors Kochanski by being certified as a Wilderness Living and Survival Instructor.

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